1. Introduction to oceans
distribution of oceans Describe the distribution of oceans and ocean currents.
morphology of oceans Describe the main features of oceanic crust and ocean floor morphology.
  Explain the occurrence of oceanic volcanic features, trenches, transform faults, mid-ocean ridges and rifts in terms of plate margins.
oceanic water Describe the horizontal and vertical spatial variations in the temperature and salinity of ocean water.2 hours

2. Oceans and climate
energy transfers Explain the thermal transfers of energy within oceans and the importance of oceanic conveyor belts.
El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) Explain the atmosphere–oceanic interactions associated with ENSO.
Explain the El Niño and La Niña phenomena and their climatic, environmental and economic effects.
carbon dioxide Examine the role of oceans as a store and source of carbon dioxide (CO2).
4 hours

3. The value of oceans
resource base Identify the biotic and abiotic resources of continental shelves, oceans and ocean floor deposits.
fishing Examine the spatial and temporal consequences of overfishing.
case study Evaluate a case study of a conservation policy implemented to provide sustainable fish yields.
waste Describe the sources and distribution of pollution in the oceans.
4 hours Discuss the implications of the pollution of oceans by the disposal of radioactive material, oil, and chemical waste.
3 hours

4. Geopolitics of oceans
  Discuss the sovereignty rights of nations in relation to territorial limits and exclusive economic zones (EEZ).Examine a geopolitical conflict in relation to an oceanic resource, other than fishing.
3 hours

5. Coastal margins
physical characteristics Examine the relationship between coastal processes (tides, wave action, littoral drift, wind action) lithology, subaerial processes and different coastal landforms.Identify the major landforms of beaches, dunes and cliffs along advancing and retreating coasts.
4 hours
management strategies Discuss the conflicts that arise from competing land uses and from attempts to manage coastal hazards (tsunamis and storm surges, erosion, cliff failure), pollution, habitat restoration and aquaculture.
case study Describe the conflicting pressures on a particular coastline.
Discuss the management strategies adopted to resolve these pressures and evaluate their effectiveness.
6 hours

6. Coral reefs and mangroves
  Examine the development and the environmental and economic value of coral reefs and mangrove swamps.Analyse the causes and consequences of the loss of coral reefs and mangrove swamps.
4 hours