Measuring Global Interactions

• global participation Describe and evaluate one of the following two Globalization Indices: the AT Kearney index or the KOF index, as a measure of global interaction. Describe how the Globalization Index may be represented spatially.
• global core and periphery Discuss the spatial pattern of global interactions through the mapping of core areas at the focus of interaction (network hubs/nodes), the peripheries and areas relatively unaffected by these interactions.
4 hours

Changing Space: the Shrinking World

• time/space convergence and the reduction in the friction of distance Explain how a reduction in the friction of distance results in time/space convergence.Examine the relative changes in the speed and capacity of two types of transport (air, ocean, road, rail, pipeline) responsible for flows of goods, materials and people.
• extension and density of networks Analyse the changes in a transport, Internet or telecommunications network in terms of the extension of links and nodes and the intensity of use at a national or global scale.Describe the role of information and communications technology (ICT) in civil society and the transmission and flow of images, ideas, information and finance.

Examine the contrasting rates, levels and patterns of adoption of an element of ICT in two countries.

12 hours

Economic Interactions and Flows

• financial flows Examine the importance of loans, debt repayment, development aid, remittances, foreign direct investment, repatriation of profits in the transfer of capital between the developed core areas and the peripheries.
Examine the influence of governments, world trading organizations and financial institutions (such as WTO, IMF and World Bank) in the transfer of capital.
• labour flows Explain the causes and effects of one major flow of labour between two countries.
• information flows Explain the role of ICT in the growth of international outsourcing.
8 hours

Environmental Change

degradation through raw material production Identify the effects of agro-industrialization and changes in international production and consumption on the physical environment.Discuss the environmental consequences of increasing international demand for one raw material. Examine the concept of food miles and the environmental consequences of increasing volumes of air freight.
• the effects of transnational manufacturing and services Discuss the reasons for and consequences of the relocation of polluting industries (such as some TNCs) and waste disposal (such as ICT, chemical, and nuclear waste) to countries with weaker environmental controls and safety regulations.
• transboundary pollution Describe one major pollution event affecting more than one country and analyse the consequences of and responses to this event.
Examine the growth of environmental awareness as a consequence of these global interactions.
Examine the role of one international civil society organization in fostering improved environmental management.
• homogenization of landscapes Explain the evolution of uniform urban landscapes; the effects of common commercial activity, structures, styles of construction and infrastructure.
8 hours

Socio-cultural Exchanges

• cultural diffusion: the process Describe cultural traits in terms of language, customs, beliefs, dress, images, music, food and technology. Examine the diffusion of cultural traits resulting from the international movement of workers and tourists and commodities.
• consumerism and culture Describe the role of TNCs and media in spreading consumer culture. Select two different branded commodities and examine the spatial and temporal pattern of adoption on a global scale.
• socio–cultural integration Examine the role of diasporas in preserving culture in one country and the adoption of minority traits by host societies.
Examine the impact of cultural diffusion on one indigenous and remote society through the influence of international interactions.
Examine the ways in which international interactions may result in the homogenization and dilution of culture. Define and exemplify the concept of cultural imperialism.
8 hours

Political Outcomes

• loss of sovereignty Discuss the links between the diminishing effectiveness of political borders and the flows of goods, capital, labour and ideas and the role of one multi-governmental organization (such as the EU, SADEC, ASEAN, NAFTA). Discuss the shift of power from nation state to TNCs as a result of their economic size and dominance. Compare the wealth of TNCs with that of nation states.
• responses Examine the resurgence of nationalism in one country as it attempts to retain control of its resources and culture.
Discuss anti-globalization movements.
Discuss the attempts to control migration into one country.
10 hours

Global interactions at the Local Level

• defining glocalization Distinguish between the terms globalization and glocalization.
• adoption of globalization Examine the extent to which commercial activities at a local scale have become globalized. Examine the reasons why the level and rate of adoption varies from place to place.
• local responses to globalization Analyse civil society responses to globalization: the adoption, adaptation (glocalization) or rejection of globalized goods, services and cultural traits.
Assess the relative costs and benefits of local commercial production to the producer, the consumer and the local economy, compared with the costs and benefits of globalized production.
• alternatives Describe the role of civil societies in raising awareness of local and global environmental, social and cultural issues. Examine the role of civil societies in supporting local economic activity and strengthening local cultural values. Discuss the position held by anti-globalization groups.
10 hours